Malaria - মায়া

Malaria

Malaria is a serious disease caused by the bite of an infected Anopheles mosquito. Malaria is a public health problem in many countries around the world, Bangladesh is considered as one of the malaria endemic countries in South Asia.
 
What causes Malaria:
Malaria is caused by a type of parasite known as Plasmodium. There are many different types of Plasmodia parasites, but only five cause malaria in humans. They are P. Falciparum, P.ovale, P.vivax, P.malariae, P.knowlesi.
Malaria can also be spread through blood transfusions and the sharing of needles, but this is very rare.
 
How the disease is being spread:
You cannot get malaria just by being near a person who has the disease. To have the disease one has to come into contact with infected blood. The mosquito becomes infected by biting an infected person and drawing blood that contains the parasite. When that mosquito bites another person, that person becomes infected.

What are the risk factors:
Living or travelling in a country or region where malaria is present.
Travelling in an area where malaria is common
Not taking medicine to prevent malaria before, during, and after travel, or failing to take the medicine correctly.
Being outdoors, especially in rural areas, between dusk and dawn (night time), when the mosquitoes that transmit malaria are most active.
Not taking steps to protect  from mosquito bites.

Symptoms of Malaria:
It causes high fever and chills and if not diagnosed or treated properly can be fatal.
In the early stages, malaria symptoms are sometimes similar to those of many other infections caused by bacteria, viruses, or parasites.
 
Symptoms may include:
•Fever
•Chills
•Headache
•Sweats
•Fatigue
•Nausea and vomiting
•muscle pains
•diarrhoea
•generally feeling unwell



Complications of Malaria:
The most serious type of malaria is caused by the Plasmodium falciparum parasite. Without prompt treatment, this type could lead to you quickly developing severe and life-threatening complications.

This may include:

•Severe infection of the brain (cerebral malaria), with seizures, confusion, and increasing tiredness leading to coma and death
•Fluid in the lungs (pulmonary edema)
•Kidney failure
•Liver failure and jaundice – yellowing of the skin and whites of the eyes
•Swelling and rupture of the skin
•Aplastic anemia
•A low number of white blood cells
•Low blood sugar (hypoglycemia)
•Low sodium and lowered pH (lactic acidosis)
•”Blackwater fever” (massive destruction of red blood cells, which causes dark-colored urine).

How is malaria prevented?
Primarily prevented by using:
Mosquito nets
Screening
Repellents
 
Malaria can be prevented by taking medicine before, during, and after travel to an area where malaria is present. This can reduce the risk of malaria by about 90%.  But this doesn’t always work. This is partly due to the parasites being resistant to some of the medicines.

 
Diagnosis of Malaria:
Doctors use thick and thin blood smears to find out whether malaria-causing parasites are in one’s blood. These tests are done on people who have been to a region where malaria is present, and were exposed to mosquitoes, and have flu-like symptoms.
A blood test that can diagnose malaria rapidly also is available.

Treatment of Malaria:
Antimalarial medication is used to prevent and treat malaria.
One should always consider taking antimalarial medicine when travelling to areas where there’s a risk of malaria. One should visit  your doctor or local travel clinic for malaria advice as soon as he know when and where he will be going to travel.
It’s very important to take the correct dose and finish the course of antimalarial treatment.

Epidemiological zone of malaria of Bangladesh:
This includes Forest hilly areas, forest fringe areas and Foothill areas and covers C.H district    (Rangamati, Khagrachari, Bandarban,Chittagong),Cox’s Bazar,areas of greater Mymensingh district.  

 
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