The exact cause behind Poly-cystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS) is still unknown. However it may be related to abnormalities in hormone levels.
Insulin is a hormone that is produced by the pancreas, it controls blood sugar levels, it tales sugar from the blood to the cells and breaks it down there to produce energy.
When the body cells do not show any reaction to insulin, that is when insulin has no effect on the body cells then that situation is described as insulin resistance. To compensate for this decreased performance excessive amounts of insulin are then produced by the body.
Due to the presence of high levels of insulin, an excessive amount of testosterone is secreted from the ovaries which causes the follicle (the purse in the ovaries where eggs are produced) producing process to be disrupted, thus hampering normal ovulation process.
Body weight increases due to insulin resistance, which helps the symptoms of PCOS to be revealed. This is because excess body fat or weight further accelerates insulin production.
In women affected by PCOS there are abnormalities in the levels of certain homes, such as:
Increased testosterone – Although this hormone is said to the male hormone, it is still produced in small amounts in women.
Luteinizing hormone (LH) Increase – This hormone stimulates the ovulation process, however it creates unusual effects on the ovaries when its amount increases.
Sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) decrease – This hormone helps reduce the amount of testosterone.
It is still unknown exactly why there are the hormonal changes. It is believed that the start of the problem lies in the ovaries themselves due to some internal fault, or the hormones that are produced in the ovaries, those hormones which are produced in certain glands, or the glands which control these hormones – it could also be due to some fault in these glands, or some change in the part of the brain that controls these hormone production processes could also be the cause behind it.
Poly-cystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is often passed through family members on a hereditary (genealogical) basis. If your mother, sister, aunt or other relatives are affected by PCOS, then you are also in risk of being affected by it.
From this the idea is that there may be a relationship between PCOS and genes, although the specific genes responsible for this problem are yet to be identified.
Image Source: pcosdatabse.com