Autism is a human’s mental problem. It is not exactly known why this hapoens, but due to some complex genetic reason or any other circumstances this may happen. Sometimes due to some other complexity this may happen.
There are two types of ASD:
– Primary ASD ( known as Edopathic ASD) : Till now the specific reason for this is not found. 90% of ASD affected people are caught in Primary ASD.
– Secondary ASD: These happens due to some complexity or circumstances. Only 10% of ASD affected people are caught in Secondary ASD.
Reasons for ASD:
-Genetic reason: due to certain genetic variation a child can be affected by ASD.
-Various circumstances: a child can be affected by ASD in the womb due to the circumstances.
-Mental reason: those who are affected by ASD, the symptoms may arise because of their different way of thinking.
-Neurological reason: due to problem in brain and nervous system ASD might occur.
-Due to other complexity: due to some specific complexity, the risk of ASD arises.
Most researchers believe that certain genes are responsible for a child’s ASD. Because there are examples of family, where more than one member are affected by ASD. For example, someone who has ASD, his/her siblings also have the risk of being infected and in case of twins usually both gets affected.
However so far the specific gene responsible for ASD could not be identified. That is why there is no diagnosis where you can be sure for complete cure of ASD. But on the basis of your child’s complication, the expertise may do some tests.
According to researchers, not only because of genetic compilation people are affected by ASD, different environmental consequences can also be responsible for this. According to this theory some child may be affected by ASD but the risk increases due to some situations such as a child born before 35 weeks of pregnancy or taking medicine like sodium valproate ( epilepsy medication) or drinking alcohol during pregnancy. But so far no evidence was found in favor of this theory.
Based on a theory called Theory of Mind (TOM), many researchers think that due to different psychological reason ASD may occur. TOM is the ability to understand someone else’s mental state, emotions, beliefs, likes, dislikes etc. In easy word, it means to see the world through another person’s eye.
It is believed that majority of children without ASD grasp the Theory of Mind within 4 years of their age. But children who have autism they do not understand it at all. The inability to understand the Theory of Mind is responsible for the psychological symptoms like problem in normal social behaviour, maintaining the same routine or getting too much interested in minor things.
If ASD is not affected due to complexity if any other reason, then from treatment’s theory and brain imaging it can be seen that the affected person’ s cerebral cortex, amygdala and limbic system becomes random or twisted.
That is why ASD affected person becomes very emotional at very trivial things or events. For this reason they like to maintain the same routine so that they can avoid unpleasant experience or work they dislike. Peers who have no interest in things but an autistic child’s interest, taste, sound and smell can be explanation for the abnormal response.
Due to other complexity
Due to the below complication, the risk of ASD increases:
-Fragile X Syndrome: this is one sort of problem in the gene for which abnormal things are seen in the face and body, such as tall face, big ears and flexible joints.
– Tuberous sclerosis: this is another type of genetic problem for which numerous number of tumors are seen in the brain and body. But there is no risk of cancer from these tumors.
– Rett syndrome: this is one type of genetic complication which only affects females. Because of this symptoms of ASD are seen and for this physical development is disrupted causing movement problem.
– Neurofibromatosis: it is a mixture of many different genetic complication for which tumor is seen in the nerve. This is mainly two types. Type-1 Neurofibromatosis and Type-2 Neurofibromatosis.
-Muscular Dystrophy: it is the sum of several hereditary genetic problems which weakens the muscles and causes physical disability.
-Down’s Syndrome: a genetic problem causing some degree of learning disability and physical disability can be certain.
-Cerebral Palsy: it is complexity in brain and nerve for which a child have trouble in understanding in movements.
-Infantile Spasm: one type of epilepsy which is affected by child at younger age. ( usually before 1 year of age)
-Intellectual disability: 50% of ASD victims IQ is below 70 ( the common people’s average is 100).