A patient affected by diarrhoea is seen at the International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease and Research Bangladesh (ICDDRB) in Dhaka April 22, 2009. A spreading diarrhoea epidemic caused by drinking unsafe water and eating rotten food has killed at least 34 people in Bangladesh since January, and made thousands more sick, doctors and officials said on Wednesday. REUTERS/Andrew Biraj (BANGLADESH HEALTH SOCIETY)

Diarrhea

Diarrhea is a health condition where one frequently pass watery or loose stool.It usually occurs when fluid can’t be absorbed from the contents of the bowel, or when extra fluid is secreted into the bowel, causing watery stool.
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Types of diarrhea-
acute watery diarrhea – lasts several hours or days, and includes cholera;
acute bloody diarrhea – also called dysentery; and.
persistent diarrhea – lasts 14 days or longer.
 
Causes of Diarrhea:
Diarrhea is usually a symptom of an infection in the intestinal tract, which can be caused by a variety of bacterial, viral and parasitic organisms The major causes are-
A virus, such as rotavirus, winter vomiting disease (Norwalk virus or norovirus), enterovirus, or a hepatitis virus.
A bacterium, such as E. coli, salmonella, shigella, C.diff (clostridium), or cholera (Vibrio cholerae).
A parasite, such as those that cause giardiasis and amoebiasis.
There is another type of diarrhoea known as traveler’s diarrhoea which everyone had at some point of his or her life, including on holiday abroad.It occurs due to contaminated food or water from a foreign country.

Other possible causes of short-term diarrhea include:
feelings of anxiety
drinking too much alcohol, coffee.
a food allergy
appendicitis
damage to the lining of the intestines as a result of radiotherapy
Diabetes
Hyperthyroidism.
Lactose intolerance: Lactose is a sugar found in milk and other dairy products. People who have difficulty digesting lactose have diarrhea after eating dairy products.
Medications: Many medications, such as antibiotics, can cause diarrhea. Antibiotics destroy both good and bad bacteria, which can disturb the natural balance of bacteria in your intestines. Other drugs that cause diarrhea are cancer drugs and antacids with magnesium.
 
Management of Diarrhea:
Diarrhea can last several days, and can leave the body without the water and salts that are necessary for survival. Most people who die from diarrhoea actually die from severe dehydration and fluid loss.That is why diarrhoea should be properly diagnosed and treated.
The most important aspect of treating diarrhea involves avoiding dehydration and replacing lost fluid. Because plain water does not contain sugar, sodium, or potassium, which are also lost in diarrhea, it is important to consume plenty of fluids that contain these substances.
 
If diarrhea is accompanied with vomiting, one should try taking tiny amounts of saline every 15 minutes. Ones he/she is able to hold down liquids,than can eat bland, soft diet or chicken soup.

Always avoid fats, sweets, coffee, and milk products and certain fruit juices, until one is completely over diarrhea.
 

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